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Christians now make up 10%-15% of the Middle Eastern population, down from 20% in the early 20th century.Cyprus is the only Christian Majority country in the Middle East, with the Christian percentage ranging between 76% and 78% of mainly Eastern Orthodox Christianity (i.e. Proportionally, Lebanon has the 2nd highest rate of Christians in the Middle East, with a percentage ranging between 39% and 40.5% of mainly Maronite Christians, followed by Egypt where Christians (especially Coptic Christians) and others account for about 10% and 23% according to different sources.Most Arab Christian Catholics however are originally non-Arab - with Melkites and Rum Christians being Arabized originally Greek-speaking Byzantine populations.Arabized Catholic Melkite Christians of the Byzantine Rite, who are either referred as Arab Christians or Greeks, number over 1 million in the Middle East.The largest number of Arab Christians are adherents of the Eastern Orthodox Church.Roman Catholics of the Latin Rite are small in numbers and Protestants altogether number about 400,000.In addition, some of the modern Arab Christians (especially Melkites) constitute Arabized Greco-Roman communities rather than ethnic Arabs.Smaller Christian groups include: Arameans, Georgians, Ossetians and Russians.
Other prominent centres of Christian learning developed in Asia Minor (most remarkably among the Cappadocian Fathers) and the Levantine coast (Gaza, Caesarea and Beirut).
There are currently several million Christian foreign workers in the Gulf area, mostly from the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
In the Persian Gulf states, Bahrain has 1,000 Christian citizens Although the vast majority of Middle Eastern populations descend from Pre-Arab and Non-Arab peoples extant long before the 7th century AD Arab Islamic conquest, a 2015 study estimates there are also 483,500 Christian believers from a previously Muslim background in the Middle East, most of them being adherents of various Protestant churches.
Politically, the Middle East of the first four Christian centuries was divided between the Roman Empire and the Parthian Empire (later Sasanian Persia).
Christians experienced sporadic persecutions in both political spheres.